Numerical simulation of flow patterns of modified bullets at subsonic flight speeds
The purpose of the study was to carry out a numerical simulation in a special package of the subsonic air flow around a pneumatic bullet of various modifications, the latter being previously experimentally tested on the ballistic track of the Department of Dynamics and Flight Control of Rockets and Spacecraft at Bauman Moscow State Technical University. The paper briefly analyzes the applicability of the most common computing packages for solving the problem, justifies the use of the ANSYS CFX package, describes the requirements and features of the computational grid construction, and gives the boundary conditions. The verification problem was solved, which showed good correspondence of the constructed model to the results of field shooting carried out in previous studies. The influence of the longitudinal rotation of the reference model of the bullet on the pattern of its flow and aerodynamic characteristics were investigated. The results of the calculations confirmed the drag improvement and bullet dispersion effects obtained when testing a number of modified samples. The calculated flow patterns and pressure fields contributed to a complete understanding of the physics of the studied modifications in a wide range of flight speeds.
 Frank M., Schönekeß H., Jäger F., et al. Ballistic parameters of 177 (4.5 mm) caliber plastic-sleeved composite projectiles compared to conventional lead pellets. Int. J. Legal Medizine, 2013, no. 127, pp. 1125–1130. DOI: 10.1007/s00414-013-0904-x
 Denny M. The internal ballistics of an air gun. The Physics Teacher, 2011, no. 49, p. 8. DOI: 10.1119/1.3543577
 Harshey A., Srivastava A., Yadav V.K., et al. Analysis of glass fracture pattern made by .177″ (4.5 mm) caliber air rifle. Egypt J. Forensic Sciences, 2017, no. 20, pp. 7. DOI: 10.1186/s41935-017-0019-5
 Ilyukhin S.N., Moskalenko V.O., Khlupnov A.I. Aerokosmicheskiy nauchny zhurnal — Aerospace scientific journal, 2015, no. 5, pp. 38–48.
 Cardew G.V. Airgun from trigger to target. G.V.& G.M. Cardew Publ., 1995, 235 p. ISBN-13: 978-0950510835
 Trofimov V.N. Puli dlya pnevmaticheskogo oruzhiya [Bullets for pneumatic weapons]. Moscow, Izd. Dom Ruchenkinykh, 2005, 160 p.
 Ilyukhin S.N., Moskalenko V.O., Bulavina V.V. Inzhenerny zhurnal: nauka i innovatsii — Engineering Journal: Science and Innovation, 2020, iss. 12. http://dx.doi.org/10.18698/2308-6033-2020-12-2039
 Nifontova L.S., Chavrikov I.E, Kalnitskiy P.V. Mezhdunarodny nauchno-issledovatelskiy zhurnal — International Research Journal, 2016, no. 12 (54), part 3, pp. 153–156.
 Kalugin V.T., Epikhin A.S. Nauchny vestnik MGTU GA — Civil Aviation High Technologies, 2015, no. 212 (2), pp. 32–37.
 Popova A.P., Dubrovina I.A., Babkina L.A. Aktualnye problemy aviatsii i kosmonavtiki (Actual problems of aviation and cosmonautics), 2016, no. 12, pp. 118–120.
 Zhidkov A.V. Primenenie sistemy ANSYS k resheniyu zadach geometricheskogo i konechno-elementnogo modelirovaniya [Application of the ANSYS system to solving problems of geometric and finite element modeling]. Nizhniy Novgorod, 2006, 115 p.
 Shabliy L.S., Krivtsov A.V., Kolmakova D.A. Kompyuternoe modelirovanie tipovykh gidravlicheskikh i gazodinamicheskikh protsessov dvigateley i energeticheskikh ustanovok v ANSYS Fluent [Computer simulation of typical hydraulic and gas-dynamic processes of engines and power plants in ANSYS Fluent]. Samara, 2017, 108 p.
 Golubev A.G., Remizova O.I. Inzhenerny zhurnal: nauka i innovatsii — Engineering Journal: Science and Innovation, 2018, no. 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.18698/2308-6033-2018-11-1821