A method of forming a spacecraft adapter layout to meet the requirements of dynamic compatibility by topological and parametric optimization methods
At present, the developers of launch vehicles impose a requirement for dynamic compatibility of the spacecraft with the launch vehicle, which consists in limiting the lower boundary of the first transverse and first longitudinal fundamental (primary) frequencies of the natural vibrations of the spacecraft fitted with an adapter of relatively rigid base. One of the tasks that must be solved in order to meet this requirement is the development of the spacecraft adapter layout. The traditional process of designing the adapter consists in developing its design on the basis of analogues and carrying out verification analysis with subsequent refinement of the design to meet the strength and stiffness requirements. However, this approach takes a lot of time and is not adaptable to constant changes in the input data at the initial design stage. The article presents a technique allowing the adapter layout to be quickly designed. The layout is determined to a greater extent by calculations using the topological and parametric optimization methods. The application of the developed technique is shown on the example of the development of an adapter for a promising spacecraft. It should be applied in the early stages of design. The results obtained by the method should be used as input data and recommendations for the design of the adapter.
 Wijker J.J. Spacecraft Structures. Springer Science & Business Media Publ., 2008, 504 p.
 Soyuz CSG User’s Manual. Issue 2.1. USA, Washington, DC, Arianespace Inc. Publ., May 2018.
 Delta IV Launch Services User’s Guide, 2013. Available at: http://www.ulalaunch.com/uploads/docs/Launch_Vehicles/Delta_IV_Users_Guide_June_2013.pdf
 Ariane 5 Users’s Manual. Issue 5 Revision 3. USA, Washington, DC, Arianespace Inc. Publ., June 2020.
 Falcon User’s Guide. SpaceX Publ., August 2020.
 Borovikov A.A., Leonov A.G., Tushev O.N. Vestnik MGTU im. N.E. Baumana. Ser. Mashinostroenie — Herald of the Bauman Moscow State Technical University. Series: Mechanical Engineering, 2019, no. 4, pp. 4–19. DOI: 10.18698/0236-3941-2019-4-4-19
 Baldzhiev R.S., Alekseyev A.A., Azarov A.V. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2019, vol. 683 (1), pp. 1–7. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/683/1/012061
 Khakhlenkova A.A., Lopatin A.V. Kosmicheskie apparaty i technologii —Spacecrafts and Technologies, 2018, vol. 2, no. 3 (25), pp. 134–146. DOI: 10.26732/2618-7957-2018-3-134-146
 Sanford G. Development and Structural Qualification of the EELV Secondary Payload Adapter (ESPA). Proceedings of the 43rd Conference “AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials” 22–25 April 2002, Denver, Colorado. 2002, pp. 1–6. https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2002-1698
 Khakhlenkova A.A. Vestnik Sibirskogo Gosudarstvennogo Aerokosmicheskogo Universiteta imeni akademika M.F. Reshetneva — Vestnik. Scientific Journal of Siberian State Aerospace University named after academician M.F. Reshetnev, 2016, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 748–759.
 Belyaev A.V., Zelentsov Vl.V., Shcheglov G.A. Sredstva vyvedeniya kosmicheskikh letatelnykh apparatov [Spacecraft launch vehicles]. Moscow, BMSTU Publ., 2007, 56 p.
 Schwingel D., Seeliger H., Vecchionacci C., Alwes D., Dittrich J. Acta Astronautica, 2007, vol. 61, pp. 326–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actaastro.2007.01.022
 Zamyatin D.A., Kolga V.V., Nesterov V.A. Proektirovanie adaptera kosmicheskogo apparata informatsionnogo obespecheniya [The design of the adapter of the information support spacecraft]. Materialy IV Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii “Aktualnye problemy aviatsii i kosmonavtiki” [Proceedings of the IV International scientific conference “Actual problems of aviation and astronautics]. Krasnoyarsk, Sibirskiy Gosudarstvennyy Aerokosmicheskiy Universitetimeni akademika M.F. Reshetneva Publ., 2018, vol 1, pp. 99–101.
 Bendsoe M.P., Sigmund O. Topology optimization. Theory, methods, and application. Springer Publ., 2004, 370 p.
 Sigmund O., Maute K. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 2013, vol. 48, pp. 1031–1055. DOI: 10.1007/s00158-013-0978-6
 Sysoeva V.V., Chedrik V.V. Uchenye zapiski TsAGI — TsAGI Science Journal, 2011, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 91–102.
 Design sensitivity and optimization. User’s guide. MSC Nastran Publ., 2018.
 Quick reference guide. MSC Nastran Publ., 2018.