Application of high power level power and propulsion systems for space transportation
The purpose of the research was to consider the application of high power level power and propulsion systems for different space missions. The paper gives the main components of high power level nuclear power and propulsion systems as well as their architecture options and integration solutions. Within the research, we set requirements to characteristics of high power level power and propulsion systems of advanced spacecraft aimed for different transport missions in near-Earth and deep space, analyzed efficiency of nuclear power and propulsion systems applied for transport missions in comparison with conventional chemical propulsion systems. Findings of the research show that high power level power and propulsion systems have the following advantages in comparison with conventional chemical propulsion systems: increase of payload mass; possibility of direct flights (without gravitational maneuvers) to deep space objects; ensuring power supply of target equipment and communication systems at a qualitatively higher level.
 Koroteev A.S., Oshev Yu.A., Popov S.A., Karevsky A.V., Solodukhin A.E., Zakharenkov L.E., Semenkin A.V. Izvestiya RAN. Energetika — Thermal Engineering, 2015, no. 5, pp. 45–59.
 Zakharenkov L.E., Semenkin A.V., Solodukhin A.E. Concept of Electric Propulsion Realization for High Power Space Tug. Progress in Propulsion Physics, 2016, vol. 8, pp. 165–180. https://doi.org/10.1051/eucass/201608165
 Herman D.A., Gray T., Johnson I., Kerl T., Lee T., Silva T. The Application of Advanced Electric Propulsion on the NASA Power and Propulsion Element (PPE). IEPC-2019-651. Available at: http://electricrocket.org/2019/651.pdf
 Ticker R., Gates M., Manzella D., Biaggi-Labiosa A., Lee T. The Gateway Power and Propulsion Element: Setting the Foundation for Exploration and Commerce. AIAA-2019-3811. DOI: 10.2514/6.2019-3811
 Khamits I.I., Filippov I.M., Burylov L.S., Tenenbaum S.M., Perilyev A.V., Gusak D.I. Kosmicheskaya tekhnika i tekhnologii — Space Engineering and Technology, 2017, no. 1 (16), pp. 32–40.
 Andrianov D.I., Zakharenkov L.E., Karevsky A.V., Popov A.V., Popov S.A., Semenkin A.V., et al. Inzhenerny zhurnal: nauka i innovatsii — Engineering Journal: Science and Innovation, 2016, iss. 7 (55). http://dx.doi.org/10.18698/2308-6033-2016-7-1518
 Akimov V.N., Zakharenkov L.E., Karevsky A.V., Kuvshinova E.Yu., Semenkin A.V., Solodukhin A.E. Inzhenerny zhurnal: nauka i innovatsii — Engineering Journal: Science and Innovation, 2019, iss. 6 (90). http://dx.doi.org/10.18698/2308-6033-2019-6-1889
 Gafarov A.A. Novosti kosmonavtiki (Space news), 2005, no. 1, pp. 44–47.
 Jansen F., et al. INPPS Flagship: Cluster of Electric Thrusters. Proceedings of the 70th International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Washington D.C., United States, October 21–25, 2019. Available at: https://elib.dlr.de/134396/1/final17102019JansenEPIACpaperallinputs.pdf
 Koroteev A.S., Karevskiy A.V., Lovtsov A.S., Selivanov M.Yu., Semenkin A.V., Solodukhin A.E., Zakharenkov L.E. Study of operation of power and propulsion system based on closed brayton cycle power conversion unit and electric propulsion. Proceedings of the 36th International Electric Propulsion Conference. IEPC-2019-A187, Austria, September 15–20, 2019.
 Final Report Summary — MEGAHIT (Megawatt Highly Efficient Technologies for Space Power and Propulsion Systems for Long-duration Exploration Missions). Project final report. Available at: http://cordis.europa.eu/result/rcn/169848_en.html (accessed January 20, 2022).
 Gafarov A.A., Kuvshinova E.Yu., Muzychenko E.I., Sinitsin A.A. Kosmonavtika i raketostroenie (Astronautics and rocket science), 2020, no. 2 (113), pp. 122–132.
 Afanasev I. Russkiy kosmos (Russian space), 2019, no. 11, pp. 46–51.